quote:These techniques can be used to do more than just study how mice smell.
quote: In THE INVISIBLE GENERATION first published in IT and in the Los Angeles Free Press in 1966 and reprinted in THE JOB, I consider the potential of thousands of people with recorders, portable and stationary, messages passed along like signal drums, a parody of the President's speech up and down the balconies, in and out open windows, through walls, over courtyards, taken up by barking dogs, muttering bums, music, traffic down windy streets, across parks and soccer fields. Illusion is a revolutionary weapon:TO SPREAD RUMORS Put ten operators with carefully prepared recordings out at rush hour and see how quick the words get around. People don't know where they heard it but they heard it. TO DISCREDIT OPPONENTS Take a recorded Wallace speech, cut in stammering coughs sneezes hiccoughs snarls pain screams fear whimperings apoplectic sputterings slobbering drooling idiot noises sex and animal sound effects and play it back in the streets subway stations parks political rallies. AS A FRONT LINE WEAPON TO PRODUCE AND ESCALATE RIOTS There is nothing mystical about this operation. Riot sound effects can produce an actual riot in a riot situation. RECORDED POLICE WHISTLES WILL DRAW COPS. RECORDED GUNSHOTS, AND THEIR GUNS ARE OUT. "MY GOD, THEY’RE KILLING US." A guardsman said later: "I heard and saw my buddy go down, his face covered in blood (turned out he'd been hit by a stone from a sling shot) and I thought, well this is it." BLOODY WEDNESDAY. A DAZED AMERICA COUNTED 23 DEAD AND 32 WOUNDED, 6 CRITICALLY. Here is a run of the mill, pre‑riot situation. Protestors have been urged to demonstrate peacefully, police and guardsmen to exercise restraint. Ten tape recorders strapped under their coats, playback, and record controlled from lapel buttons. They have pre‑recorded riot sound effects from Chicago, Paris, Mexico City, Kent/Ohio. If they adjust sound levels of recordings to surrounding sound levels, they will not be detected. Police scuffle with the demonstrators. The operators converge. turn on Chicago record, play back, move on to the next scuffles, record playback, keep moving. Things are hotting up, a cop is down groaning. shrill chorus of recorded pig squeals and parody groans. Could you cool a riot by recording the calmest cop and the most reasonable demonstrator? Maybe! However, it's a lot easier to start trouble that to stop it. Just pointing out that cut/ups on the tape recorder can be used as a weapon. You'll observe that the operators are making a cutup as they go. They are cutting in Chicago, Paris, Mexico City, Kent Ohio with the present soundeffects at random and that is a cutup. AS A LONG RANGE WEAPON TO SCRAMBLE AND NULLIFY ASSOCIATIONAL LINES PUT DOWN BY MASS MEDIA The control of the mass media depends on laying down lines of association. When the lines are cut the associational connections are broken.President Johnson burst into a swank apartment, held three girls at gunpoint, 26 miles north of Saigon yesterday. you can cut the mutter line of the mass media and put the altered mutter line out in the streets with a tape recorder. Consider the mutter line of the daily press. It goes up with the morning papers, millions of people read the same words. In different ways, of course. A motion praising Mr. Callaghan's action in banning the South African Cricket Tour has spoiled the colonel's breakfast. All reacting one way or another to the paper world or unseen events which becomes an integral part of your reality. You will notice that this process is continually subject to random juxtapostation. Just what sign did you see in the Green Park station as you glanced up from the PEOPLE? Just who called as you were reading your letter in the TIMES? What were you reading when your wife broke a dish in the kitchen? An unreal paper world and yet completely real because it is actually happening. Mutter line of the EVENING NEWS, TV. Fix yourself on millions of people all watching Jesse James or the Virginian at the same time. International mutter line of the weekly news magazine always dated a week ahead. Have you noticed it's the kiss of death to be on the front cover of TIME. Madam Nhu was there when her husband was killed and her government fell. Verwoerd was on the front cover of TIME when a demon tapeworm gave the order for his death through a messenger of the same. Read the Bible, kept to himself, no bad habits, you know the type. Old reliable, read all about it. So stir in news stories, TV plays, stock market quotations, adverts and put the altered mutter line out in the streets. The underground press serves as the only effective counter to a growing power and more sophisticated technique used by establishment mass media to falsify, misrepresent, misquote, rule out of consideration as a PRIORI ridiculous or simply ignore and blot out of existence: data, books, discoveries that they consider prejudicial to establishment interest. I suggest that the underground press could perform this function much more effectively by the use of cut/up techniques. For example, prepare cut/ups of the ugliest reactionary statements you can find and surround them with the ugliest pictures. Now give it the drool, slobber, animal noise treatment and put it out on the mutter line with recorders. Run a scramble page in every issue of a transcribed tape recorded cut/up of news, radio and TV. Put the recordings out on the mutter line before the paper hits the stand. It gives you a funny feeling to see a headline that's been going round and round inside your head. The underground press could add a mutter line to their adverts and provide a unique advertising service. Cut the product in with pop tunes, cut the product in with advertising slogans and jingles of other products and syphon off the sales. Anybody that doubts that these techniques work has only to put them to the test. The techniques here described are in use by the CIA and agents of other countries ...Ten years ago they were making systematic street recordings in every district of Paris. I recall the Voice of America man in Tangir and a room full of tape recorders and you could hear some strange sounds through the wall. Kept to himself, hello in the hall. Nobody was ever allowed in that room, not even a fatima. Of course, there are many technical elaborations like long‑range directional mikes. When cutting the prayer call in with hog grunts it doesn't pay to be walking around the market place with a portable tape recorder. An article in NEW SCIENTIST June 4, 1970, page 470, entitled ' Electronic Arts of Noncommunication ' by Richard C French gives the clue for more precise technical instructions. In 1968, with the help of Ian Sommerville and Anthony Balch, I took a short passage of my recorded voice and cut it into intervals of one twenty ‑ fourth of a second movie tape (movie tape is larger and easier to splice)‑ and rearranged the order of the 24th second intervals of recorded speech. The original words are quite unintelligible but new words emerge. The voice is still there and you can immediately recognize the speaker. Also the tone of the voice remains. If the tone is friendly, hostile, sexual, poetic, sarcastic lifeless, despairing, this will be apparent in the altered sequence.I did not realize at the time that I was using a technique that has been in existence since 1881 ...I quote from Mr. French's article ... "designs for speech scramblers go back to 1881 and the desire to make telephone and radio communications unintelligible to third parties has been with us ever since"... The message is scrambled in transmission and then unscrambled at the other end. There are many of these speech scrambling devices that work on different principles... "another device which saw service during the war was the time division scrambler. The signal was chopped up into elements .005 cm long. These elements are taken in groups or frames and rearranged in a new sequence. Imagine that the speech recorded is recorded on magnetic tape which is cut into pieces .02 long and the pieces rearranged into a new sequence. This can actually be done and gives a good idea what speech sounds like when scrambled in this way." This I had done in 1968. And this is an extension of the cut/up method. The simplest cut/up cuts a page down the middle and across the middle into four sections. Section 1 is then placed with section 4 and section 3 with section 2 in a new sequence. Carried further we can break the page down into smaller and smaller units in altered sequences. The original purpose of scrambling devices was to make the message unintelligible without scrambling the code. Another use for speech scramblers could be to impose thought control on a mass scale. consider the Human body and nervous system as unscrambling devices. A common virus like the cold sore could sensitize the subject to unscramble messages. Drugs like LSD and Dim‑N could also act as unscrambling devices. Moreover, the mass media could sensitize millions of people to receive scrambled versions of the same set of data. Remember that when the human nervous system unscrambles a scrambled message this will seem to the subject like his very own ideas which just occurred to him, which indeed it did. Take a card, any card. In most cases he will not suspect its extraneous origin. that is the run of the mill newspaper reader who receives the scrambled message uncritically and assumes that it reflects his own opinions independently arrived at. On the other other hand, the subject may recognize or suspect the extraneous origins of voices that are literally hatching out in his head. Then we have a classic syndrome of paranoid psychosis. Subject hears voices. Anyone can be made to hear voices with scrambling techniques. It is not difficult to expose him to the actual scrambled message, any part of which can be made intelligible. This can be done with street recorders, recorders in cars, doctored radio and TV sets. In his own flat if possible, if not in some bar or restaurant he frequents. If he doesn't talk to himself, he soon will do. You bug his flat. Now he is really round the bend hearing his own voice out of radio and TV broadcasts and the conversation of passing strangers. See how easy it is? Remember the scrambled message is partially unintelligible and in any case he gets the tone. Hostile white voices unscrambled by a Negro will also activate by association every occasion on which he has been threatened or humiliated by whites. To carry it further you can use recordings of voices known to him. You can turn him against his friends by hostile scrambled messages in a friend's voice. This will activate all his disagreements with that friend. You can condition him to like his enemies by friendly scrambled messages in enemy voices. On the other hand the voices can be friendly and reassuring. He is now working for the CIA, the GPU, or whatever, and these are his orders. They now have an agent who has no information to give away and who doesn't have to be paid. and he is now completely under control. If he doesn't obey orders they can give him the hostile voice treatment. No, "They" are not God or super technicians from outer space. Just technicians operating with well‑known equipment and using techniques that can be duplicated by anyone else who can buy and operate this equipment. To see how scrambling technique could work on a a mass scale, imagine that a news magazine like TIME got out a whole issue a week before publication and filled it with news based on predictions following a certain line, without attempting the impossible, giving our boys a boost in every story and the Commies as many defeats and casualties as possible, a whole new issue of TIME formed from slanted prediction of future news. Now imagine this scrambled out through the mass media. With minimal equipment you can do the same thing on a smaller scale. You need a scrambling device, TV, radio, two video cameras, a ham radio station and a simple photo studio with a few props and actors. For a start you scramble the news all together and spit it out every which way on ham radio and street recorders. You construct fake news broadcasts on video camera. For the pictures you can use mostly old footage. Mexico City will do for a riot in Saigon Chile you can use the Londonderry pictures. Nobody knows the difference. Fires, earthquakes, plane crashes can be moved around. for example, here is a plane crash in Toronto 108 dead. so move the picture of the Barcelona plane crash over to Toronto and Toronto to Barcelona. And you scramble your fabricated news in with actual news broadcasts. You have an advantage which your opposing player does not have. He must conceal his manipulations. You are under no such necessity. In fact you can advertise the fact that you are writing the news in advance and trying to make it happen by techniques which anybody can use. And that makes you NEWS.And TV personality as well, if you play it right. You want the widest possible circulation for your cut/up video tapes. Cut/up techniques could swamp the mass media with total illusion. Fictional dailies retroactively canceled the San Francisco earthquake and Halifax explosion as journalistic hoaxes, and doubt released from the skin law extendable and revenous, consumed all the facts of history. Mr French concludes his article ..."The use of modern microelectric integrated circuits could lower the cost of speech scramblers enough to see them in use by private citizens. Codes and ciphers have always had a strong appeal to most people and I think scramblers will as well..." It is generally assumed that speech must be consciously understood to cause an effect. Early experiments with subliminal images have shown that this is not true. A number of research projects could be based on speech scramblers. We have all seen the experiment where someone hears his ownrecorded voice back a few seconds later. Soon he cannot go on talking. Would scrambled speech have the same effect? to what extent does a language act as unscrambling in either‑or conflict terms? To what extent does the tone of voice used by a speaker impose a certain unscrambling sequence on the listener? Many of the cut/up tapes would be entertaining and in fact entertainment is the most promising field for cut/up techniques. Imagine a pop festival like Phun City scheduled for July 24th, 25th, 26, 1970 at Ecclesden Common, Patching, near Worthing, Sussex. Festival area comprised of car park and camping area, a rock auditorium, a village with booths and cinema, a large wooded area. A number of Tape recorders planted in the woods and the village. As many as possible so as to lay down a grid of sound over the whole festival. Recorders have tapes of prerecorded material, music, news, broadcasts, recordings from other festivals, etc. At all times some of the recorders are playing back and some are recording. The recorders recording the crowd and the other tape recorders that are playing back at varying distances. This cuts in the crowd who will be hearing their own voices back. Play back, wind back and record could be electronically controlled with varying intervals. Or they could be hand operated, the operator deciding what intervals of play back, record, and wind to use. Effect is greatly increased by a large number of festival goers with portable recorders playing back and recording as they walk around the festival. We can carry it further with projection screens and video cameras. Some of the material is pre‑prepared, sex films, films of other festivals, and this material is cut in with live TV broadcasts and shots of the crowd. Of course, the rock festival will be cut in on the screens, thousands of fans portable recorders recording, and playing back, the singer could direct play back und record. Set up an area for traveling performers, jugglers, animal acts, snake charmers, singers, musicians, and cut these acts in. Film and tape from the festival, edited for best material, could then be used at other festivals. Quite a lot of equipment and engineering to set it up. the festival could certainly be enhanced if as many festival goers as possible bring portable tape recorders and play back at the festival. Any message, music, conversation you want to pass around, bring it pre‑recorded on tape so everybody takes a piece of your tape home.Research project: to find out to what extent scrambled messages are unscrambled, that is scanned out by experimental subjects. The simplest experiments consists in playing back a scrambled message to subject. Message could contain simple commands. Does the scrambled message have any command value comparable to post‑hypnotic suggestion? Is the actual content of the message received? What drugs, if any, increase ability to unscramble messages? Do subjects vary widely in this ability? Are scrambled messages in the subject's own voice more effective than messages in other voices? Are messages scrambled in certain voices more easily unscrambled by specific subjects? Is the message more potent with both word and image scramble on video tape? Now to use, for example, a video tape message with a unified emotional content. Let us say the message is fear. For this we take all the past fear shots of the subject we can collect or evoke. We cut these in with fear words and pictures, and threats, etc. This is all acted out and would be upsetting in any case. Now let's try it scrambled and see if we can get an even stronger effect. The subject's blood pressure, rate of heart beat, and brain waves are recorded as we play back the scrambled tape. His face is photographed and visible to him on video screen at all times. the actual scrambling of the tape can be done in two ways. It can be a completely random operation like pulling pieces out of a hat and if this is done several consecutive units may occur together yielding an identifiable picture of intelligible word. Both methods of course can be used at varying intervals. Blood pressure, heart beat, and brainwave recordings will show the operator what material is producing the strongest reaction, and he will of course zero in. And remember that the subject can see his face at all timesand his face is being photographed. As the Peeping Tom said, the most frightening thing is fear in your own face. If the subject becomes too disturbed we have peace and safety tapes ready. Now here is a sex tape: This consists of a sex scene acted out by the ideal sexual object of the subject and his ideal self image. Shown straight it might be exciting enough, now scramble it. It makes a few seconds for scrambled tapes to hatch out, and then? can scrambled sex tapes zeroing in on the subject's reactions and brain waves result in spontaneous orgasm? Can this be extended to other functions of the body? A mike secreted in the water closet and all his shits and farts recorded and scrambled in with stern nanny voices commanding him to shit, and the young liberal shits his pants on the platform right under Old Glory. Could laugh tapes, sneeze tapes, hiccough tapes, cough tapes, give rise to laughing sneezing, hiccoughing, and coughing? To what extent can physical illness be induced by scrambled tapes? Take for example, a sound and color picture of a subject with a cold. Later, when the subject is fully recovered, we take color and sound film of recovered subject. We now scrambled the cold pictures and sound track in with present pictures on present pictures. We also project the cold pictures on present pictures. Now we try using some of Mr. Hubbard's reactive mind phrases which are supposed in themselves to produce illness. To be me, to be you, to stay here, to stay there, to be a body, to be bodies, to stay present, to stay past. now we scramble this in together and show it to the subject. Could seeing and hearing this sound and image track, scrambled down to very small units, bring about an attack of cold virus? Is such a cold tape does actually produce an attack of cold virus, perhaps we have merely activated a latent virus. Many viruses, as you know, are latent in the body and may be activated. We can try the same with coldsore, with hepatitis, always remembering that we may be activating a latent virus and in no sense creating a laboratory virus. However, we may be in a position to do this. Is a virus perhaps simply very small units of sound and image? Remember the only image a virus has is the image and sound track it can impose on you. The yellow eyes of jaundice, the postules of smallpox, etc. imposed on you against your will. The same is certainly true of scrambled word and image it can make you unscramble. Take a card, any card. This does not mean that it is actually a virus. Perhaps to construct a laboratory virus we would need both camera and sound crew and a biochemist as well. I quote from the INTERNATIONAL PARIS TRIBUNE an article on the synthetic gene: "Dr. Har Johrd Khorana has made a gene‑synthetic." "It is the beginning of the end," this was the immediate reaction to this news from the science attache' at one of Washington's major embassies. "If you can make genes you can eventually make new viruses for which there are no cures. any little country with good biochemists could make such biological weapons. It would take only a small laboratory. If it can be done, somebody will do it. "For example, a death virus could be created that carries the coded message of death. A death tape, in fact. No doubt the technical details are complex and perhaps a team of sound and camera men working with biochemists would give us the answer. And now the question as to whether scrambling techniques could be used to spread helpful and pleasant messages. Perhaps. On the other hand, the scrambled words and tape act like a virus in that they force something on the subject against his will. More to the point would be to discover how the old scanning patterns could be altered so that subject liberates his own spontaneous scanning pattern. NEW SCIENTIST 2 July, 1970 ...Current memory theory posits a seven second temporary "buffer store" preceding the main one: a blow on the head wipes out memory of this much prior time because it erases the contents of the buffer. Daedalus observes that the sense of the present also covers just this range and so suggests that our sensory input is recorded on an endless time loop, providing some seven seconds of delay for scanning before erasure. In this time the brain edits, makes sense of, and selects storage key features. The weird DEJA VU sensation "now" has happened before is clearly due to brief erasure failure, so that we encounter already stored memory data coming round again. Time dragging or racing must reflect tape speed. A simple experiment will demonstrate this erasure process in operation. Making street recordings and playing them back, you will hear things you do not remember, sometimes said in a loud clear voice, must have been quite close to you, nor do you necessarily remember them when you hear the recording back. The sound has bee erased according to a scanning pattern which is automatic. This means that what you notice and store as memory as you walk down the street is scanned out of a much larger selection of data which is then erased from the memory. For the walker the signs he passed, people he has passed, are erased from his mind and cease to exist for him. Now to make this scanning process conscious and controllable, try this: Walk down a city block with a camera and take what you notice, moving the camera around as closely as possible to follow the direction of your eyes.The point is to make the camera your eyes and take what your eyes are scanning out of the larger picture. At the same time take the street at a wide angle from a series of still positions. The street of the operator is, of course, the street as seen by the operator. It is different from the street seen at a wide angle. Much of it is in fact missing. Now you can make arbitrary scanning patterns ‑ that is cover first one side of the street and then the other in accordance with a preconceived plan. So you are breaking down the automatic scanning patterns. You could also make color scanning patterns, that is, scan out green, blue, red, etc. in so far as you can with your camera. That is, you are using an arbitrary preconceived scanning pattern, in order to break down automatic scanning patterns. a number of operators do this and then scramble their takes together and with wide angletapes. This could train the subject to see at a wider angle and also to ignore and erase at will. Now all this is readily subject to experimental verification on control subjects. Nor need the equipment be all on control subjects. Nor need the equipment be all that complicated. I have shown how it could work with feedback from brainwaves and visaaceral response and video tape photos of subject taken while he is seeing and hearing the tape, simply to show optimum effectiveness. You can start with two tape recorders. The simplest scrambling device is scissors and splicing equipment. You can start scrambling words, make any kind of tapes and scramble them and observe the effects on friends and on yourself. Next step is sound film and then video camera. Of course results from individual experiments could lead to mass experiments, mass fear tapes, riot tapes, etc. The possibilities here for research and experiment are virtually unlimited and I have simply made a few very simple suggestions "A virus is characterized and limited by obligate cellular parasitism. All viruses must parasite living cells for their replication. For all viruses the infection cycle comprises entry into the host, intracellular replication, and escape from the body of the host to initiate a new cycle in a fresh host." I am quoting here from MECHANISMS OF VIRUS INFECTION edited by Dr. Wilson Smith. In its wild state the virus has not proved to be a very adaptable organism. Some viruses have burned themselves have burned out since they were 100 per cent fatal and there were no reservoirs. Each strain of virus is rigidly programed for certain attack on certain tissues. If the attack fails, the virus does not gain a new host. There are, of course, virus mutations, and the influenza virus has proved quite versatile in this way. Generally it's the simple repetition of the same method of entry, and if that method is blocked by any body or other agency such as interferon, the attack fails. By and large, our virus is a stupid organism. Now we can think for the virus, devise a number of alternate methods of entry. For example, the host is simultaneously attacked by an ally virus who tells him that everything is alright and by a pain and fear virus. so the virus is now using an old method of entry, namely, the tough cop and the con cop. We have considered the possibility that a virus can be activated or even created by very small units of sound and image. So conceived, the virus can be made to order in the laboratory. Ah, but for the takes to be effective, you must have also the actual virus and what is the actual virus? New virusesturn up from time to time but from where do they turn up? Well, lets see how we could make a virus turn up. We plot now our virus's symptoms and make a scramble tape. The susceptible subjects, that is those who reproduce some of the desired symptoms, will then be scrambled into more tapes till we scramble our virus into existence. This birth of a virus occurs when our virus is able to reproduce itself in a host and pass itself on to another host. Perhaps, too, with the virus under laboratory control it can be tamed for useful purposes. Imagine, for example a sex virus. it so inflames the sex centers in the back brain that the host is driven mad from sexuality, all other considerations are blacked out Parks full of naked, frenzied people, shitting, pissing, ejaculating, and screaming. So the virus could be malignant, blacking out all regulation and end in exhaustion, convulsions, and death. Now let us attempt the same thing with tape. We organize a sex‑tape festival. We organize a sex‑tape festival. 100,000 people bring their scrambled sex tapes, and video tapes as well, to scramble in together. Projected on vast screens, muttering out over the crowd, sometimes it slows down, so that you see a few seconds, then scrambled again, then slow down, scramble. Soon it will scramble them all naked. The cops and the National Guard are stripping down. LET'S GET OURSELVES SOME CIVVIES. Now a thing like that could be messy, but those who survive it recover from the madness. Or, say, a small select group of really like‑minded people get together with their sex tapes, you see the process is now being brought under control. And the fact that anybody can do it is in itself a limiting factor. Here is Mr. Hart, who wants to infect everyone with his own image and turn them all into himself, so he scrambles himself and dumps himself out in search of worthy vessels. If nobody else knows about scrambling techniques he might scramble himself quite a stable of replicas. but anybody can do it. So go on, scramble your sex words, and find suitable mates. If you want to, scramble yourself out there, every stale joke, fart, chew, sneeze, and stomach rumble. If your trick no work you better run. Everybody doing it, they all scramble in together and the populations of the earth just better settle down a nice even brown colour. Scrambles is the democratic way, the way full cellular representation. Scrambles is the American way. I have suggested that virus can be created to order in the laboratory from very small units of sound and image. Such a preparation is not in itself biologically active but it could activate or even create virus in susceptible subjects. A carefully prepared jaundice tape could activate or create or create the jaundice virus in liver cells, especially in cases where the jaundice liver is already damaged. The operator is in effect directing a virus revolution of the cells. Since DOR seems to attack those exposed to it at the weakest point, release of this force could coincide with virus attack. Reactive mind phrases could serve the same purpose of rendering subjects more susceptible to virus attack. It will be seen that scrambled speech already has many of the characteristics of virus. When the speech takes and unscrambles, this occurs compulsively and against the will of the subject. A virus must remind you of its presence. Whether it is the nag of a cold sore or the torturing spasms of rabies the virus reminds you of its unwanted presence. "HERE ME IS." So does scrambled word and image. The units are unscrambling compulsively, presenting certain words and images to the subject and this repetitive presentation is irritating certain bodily and neutral areas. The cells so irritated can produce over a period of time the biologic virus units. We now have a new virus that can be communicated and indeed the subject may be desperate to communicate this thing that is bursting inside him. He is heavy with the load. Could this load be good and beautiful? Is it possible to create a virus which will communicate calm and sweet reasonableness? A virus must parasitize a host in order to survive. It uses the cellular material of the host to make copies of itself. in most cases this is damaging to the host. The virus gains entrance by fraud and maintains itself by force. An unwanted guest who makes you sick to look at is never good or beautiful. It is moreover a guest who always repeats itself word for word take for take. Remember the life cycle of a virus ... penetration of a cell or activation within the cell, replication within the cell, escape from the cell to invade other cells, escape from host to infect a new host. This infection can take place in many ways and those who find themselves heavy with the load of a new virus generally use a shotgun technique to cover a wide range of infection routes... cough, sneeze, spit and fart at every opportunity, Save shit, piss, snot, scabs, sweat stained clothes and all bodily secretions for dehydration.The composite dust can be unobtrusively billowed out a roach bellows in subways, dropped from windows in bags, or sprayed out a crop duster ... Carry with you at all times an assortment of vectors ... lice, fleas, bed bugs, and little aviaries of mosquitoes and biting flies filled with your blood...I see no beauty in that.
quote:Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurodegenerative disease, thought to arise through autoimmunity against antigens of the central nervous system. The autoimmunity hypothesis fails to explain why genetic and environmental risk factors linked to the disease in one population tend to be unimportant in other populations. Despite great advances in documenting the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying MS pathophysiology, the autoimmunity framework has also been unable to develop a comprehensive explanation of the etiology of the disease. I propose a new framework for understanding MS as a dysfunction of the metabolism of lipids. Specifically, the homeostasis of lipid metabolism collapses during acute-phase inflammatory response triggered by a pathogen, trauma, or stress, starting a feedback loop of increased oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and proliferation of cytoxic foam cells that cross the blood brain barrier and both catabolize myelin and prevent remyelination. Understanding MS as a chronic metabolic disorder illuminates four aspects of disease onset and progression: 1) its pathophysiology; 2) genetic susceptibility; 3) environmental and pathogen triggers; and 4) the skewed sex ratio of patients. It also suggests new avenues for treatment.
quote:Originally posted by Justy:I'm wondering what greendreams will think of this (via novelist and MS sufferer Nicola Griffith):http://asknicola.blogspot.com/...sorder-paper-is.htmlAbstract:quote:Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurodegenerative disease, thought to arise through autoimmunity against antigens of the central nervous system. The autoimmunity hypothesis fails to explain why genetic and environmental risk factors linked to the disease in one population tend to be unimportant in other populations. Despite great advances in documenting the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying MS pathophysiology, the autoimmunity framework has also been unable to develop a comprehensive explanation of the etiology of the disease. I propose a new framework for understanding MS as a dysfunction of the metabolism of lipids. Specifically, the homeostasis of lipid metabolism collapses during acute-phase inflammatory response triggered by a pathogen, trauma, or stress, starting a feedback loop of increased oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and proliferation of cytoxic foam cells that cross the blood brain barrier and both catabolize myelin and prevent remyelination. Understanding MS as a chronic metabolic disorder illuminates four aspects of disease onset and progression: 1) its pathophysiology; 2) genetic susceptibility; 3) environmental and pathogen triggers; and 4) the skewed sex ratio of patients. It also suggests new avenues for treatment. Another link, as the official press release makes the rounds:http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_...2/uocp-rcm122211.php